South East Training - Business Process Modelling Toolkit

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First Review - Basic Notation

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Start Events

  • Start events include: none start events, message start events and timer start events.
    • A none start event means the trigger is unspecified. Sub-processes must have a none start event.
    • A message start event means the process is triggered by an outside event. These cannot be used within a sub-process.
    • A timer start event means the trigger is a scheduled event. Again, these cannot be used within a sub-process.

End Events

  • End events include: none end events, message end events and terminal events.
    • A none end event ends the process and no results signal is thrown.
    • A message end event signifies a message is sent when the event is reached.
    • A terminal end event immediately ends a process, even if other paths are still running. Used within a sub-process, it stops the sub-process but not the main process. No message is sent.


  • Exclusive or XOR gateways have one sequence flow in and more than one out. Only one sequence flow can be followed.
  • Parallel or AND gateways can be used to represent a parallel split or a parallel join.
    • Parallel splits have one sequence flow in and more than one out; all paths are followed.
    • Parallel joins have more than one path in but only one flow out. All incoming paths must arrive before flow out.
  • Parallel paths do not need to join downstream but all paths must complete for the process or sub-process to complete.

Sequence and Message Flow

  • Sequence flow links activities, gateways and events in a single pool. You cannot have sequence flow between pools.
  • Message flow represents a signal flowing between pools. You cannot have message flow within a pool.

Link Events

  • Link events are used to link diagrams that spread over more than one page.  There are two sorts:
    • Throwing link event - this throws the sequence to the next page
    • Catching link event - this catches the sequence flow from the previous page.

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